Child Legitimation in Thailand

Child legitimation is an important legal process in Thailand that establishes the legal relationship between a child born out of wedlock and their biological father. This legal recognition grants the child certain rights and benefits, including inheritance and the right to use the father’s surname. In this article, we will explore child legitimation in Thailand, including the legal process, the rights and responsibilities of the parties involved, and the implications for both parents and the child.

Understanding Child Legitimation

Child legitimation is the legal process by which a child born to parents who are not married is granted the same legal status and rights as a child born within a marriage. In Thailand, this process is governed by the Thai Civil and Commercial Code (CCC) and is aimed at protecting the rights and interests of the child.

Legal Process of Child Legitimation in Thailand

The process of child legitimation in Thailand involves several steps:

  1. Consent of Both Parents: Both the mother and the biological father must provide their written consent for the child’s legitimation. If the mother is deceased or unable to provide consent, a legal representative or guardian may do so.
  2. Submission of Documents: The parents or legal representatives must submit various documents to the local district office (Amphur) or the Bangkok District Office, depending on the child’s place of residence. These documents typically include the child’s birth certificate, the mother’s ID card, and the father’s ID card or passport.
  3. Payment of Fees: There are usually fees associated with the legitimation process. These fees can vary depending on the region and the specific district office.
  4. Witnesses: Two witnesses who are not blood relatives and who are at least 25 years old must be present during the legitimation process to verify the parents’ consent and the child’s legitimacy.
  5. Declaration of Legitimation: After all documents have been submitted and verified, a declaration of legitimation is issued by the district office, recognizing the child as legitimate.
  6. Change of Surname: Once legitimation is granted, the child has the right to use the father’s surname if the father provides consent. If the father refuses, the child retains the mother’s surname.

Rights and Implications of Child Legitimation

Child legitimation in Thailand carries various rights and implications for both parents and the child:

  1. Rights of the Child:
    • Inheritance: Legitimated children have the legal right to inherit from both parents, just like children born within a marriage.
    • Use of Surname: Legitimated children can use the father’s surname with his consent, providing them with a sense of belonging and identity.
    • Citizenship: Legitimated children may have a more straightforward process for obtaining Thai citizenship if their father is a Thai citizen.
    • Maintenance and Support: The father becomes legally obligated to provide financial support and maintenance for the child.
  2. Rights of the Father:
    • Parental Rights: The father gains legal parental rights, including visitation, custody, and participation in important decisions regarding the child’s upbringing.
    • Claim to Paternity: Legitimation allows the father to officially acknowledge the child as his own and claim paternity rights.
    • Inheritance: The father’s estate is distributed to the legitimated child if the father passes away.
  3. Rights of the Mother:
    • Custody and Support: The mother retains her custodial rights and can continue to provide care for the child. She may also receive support from the father.
  4. Implications for Both Parents:
    • Financial Responsibility: Both parents share financial responsibility for the child’s upbringing, including education, healthcare, and other essential needs.
    • Legal Obligations: Both parents must adhere to their legal obligations regarding the child’s welfare and well-being.

Challenges and Considerations

Child legitimation can be a complex process, and there are some challenges and considerations to keep in mind:

  1. Consent of Both Parents: Obtaining the consent of both parents for legitimation can be challenging, especially if there is a dispute or if one parent is uncooperative.
  2. Parental Responsibilities: Both parents should be aware of their legal responsibilities and obligations toward the child, including financial support and decision-making.
  3. Inheritance Implications: Legitimation can have significant inheritance implications, affecting the distribution of assets and property upon the father’s death.
  4. Custody and Visitation: Issues related to custody and visitation rights may arise, and both parents should be prepared to address these matters in the best interests of the child.
  5. Documentation: Proper documentation, including the child’s birth certificate and the parents’ identification, is crucial for a smooth legitimation process.


Child legitimation in Thailand is a legal process that grants children born out of wedlock the same legal rights and status as children born within a marriage. It is a crucial step in protecting the rights and interests of the child, ensuring they have access to financial support, inheritance, and a sense of identity. Both parents must understand their rights and responsibilities in the legitimation process and work together to provide the best possible upbringing for their child. Seeking legal counsel and guidance can help navigate the complexities of child legitimation and ensure a smooth and legally sound process for all parties involved.

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